Climate modification is a multi-faceted and complex subject. In this article, we take a look at the relationship between climate modification and volcanoes.

Climate Modification and Volcanoes

The climate modification debate is a nasty one. Parties pick their positions, dig in and refuse to listen to the rants of the other side. Lost in the yelling is the simple fact that climate modification is a natural phenomenon to some extent. For proof, we need merely look at the materials kicked out by volcanoes.

It is an undeniable fact of the earth record that volcanoes have changed the climate during certain periods. Small explosions don’t have much impact, but large explosions send massive amounts of material and gases into the atmosphere. The gases include carbon dioxide, the ultimate bugaboo greenhouse gas. Beyond these gases, however, volcanoes can kick out so much debris and ash that the material in the atmosphere can actually block out the sun or reduce the warming effect.

Mount St. Helens is the most studied and well known recent eruption. Unless you have been meditating in a cave for the last 20 years, you know that the volcano exploded on May 18, 1980. The eruption was powerful enough to flatten everything for 17 miles, immediately turning 10 million trees into so much firewood. The huge volcanic ash cloud stretched halfway across the United States, but barely had an impact on global temperatures.

In contrast, the eruption of the El Chichon volcano in 1982 had a measurable climate impact. El Chichon is located in Mexico and was a much smaller eruption than Mount St. Helens. Still, the average temperature around the globe cooled by one degree. What scientist learned is the climate modification impact of volcanoes is highly dependent on the type of explosion. The materials from Mount St. Helens fell out of the atmosphere quickly, while El Chichon belched enormous amounts of sulfur that remained in the atmosphere for much longer.

One of the problems with climate modification is it occurs over a relatively long period of time. Since we started paying attention to the situation, we have not had a chance to see the impact of a major eruption. The stuff we see on television is really small potatoes compared to historically eruptions of note. For example, Mount St. Helens threw roughly a half a cubic mile of material into the air. In 1815, a volcano in Indonesia belched 24 cubic miles of material into the atmosphere. Obviously, one has to imagine it impacted the climate of the earth.

Is there a relationship between climate modification and volcanoes? Undoubtedly. From what we see, however, the relationship is generally of a short duration and not an explanation for the rising temperatures we are seeing currently.

Rick Chapo is with SolarCompanies.com, a directory of solar energy companies. Visit us to read more articles on solar power and global warming and volcanoes.

Lately, gold as an investment has become a hot commodity. The ever-rising prices of gold have turned them into the best investment option. Though one can put the money in this expensive metal without any type of fear but still one must have some knowledge about this precious yellow metal.

There are concerns amongst investors when buying gold, just as there are concerns when putting money into any investment asset. However, many of these have benefits. When prices of the metal rise when the dollar goes down. These two have the inverse relationship between them. The weaker dollar or the unstable stock market makes it more expensive. So, most of the people like to invest in gold instead of the other sources. The stock market doesnt remain stable all the time and also makes for the unsecured investment. On the other hand, the expensive metals procure their value and mostly provide the good returns.

Gold is also liquidity and ease to sell. Buy gold coins to increase the returns value. These usually have the numismatic value and are more expensive than the bars. Over the time these yield more value than any other commodity. The historical coins never go for less if maintained in the perfect condition. Also these can be sold very easily owing to the higher liquidity.
When investors buy physical gold, they are reserving wealth by buying gold coins and bars. Gold coins give the opportunity to preserve the wealth from the economic downturn or inflation. These have the intrinsic value so one can rely on them during the adverse situations also. They wont become valueless under any circumstances. The yellow metal also doesnt rust and one can keep them safely in a secure storage safe.

Financial future security is another key fundamental when buying gold as an investment. Gold has proven to provide one of the best financial security for the future. As one can keep them for a long period of time because the metal doesnt deteriorate with time so it makes the future of the person secure. The financial security also gives the peace and prosperity in life.

A car is the most convenient tool of transportation and plays an important role in one’s daily life. You may choose to buy a car by paying the full amount yourself or by getting the car financed by a bank or any other financing institution. The majority of car buyers opt for car finance in Sydney every year.

In case you opt for car finance, it becomes very important for you to conduct proper research before signing the car finance contract. There is a wide range of options available for car finance in Sydney. Before finalizing your car loan, it is wise to spend considerable time in making sure that the interest rate you are being offered and all the terms and conditions of car finance by any Sydney based lending institution suit you.

The most common mistake that Sydney car finance customers generally commit is that they confide themselves to the terms and conditions of a loan. Pondering over the repayment scheme of your car loan is well worth the time. The other issue of car finance in Sydney is that only a few people spend time comparing interest rates on car loans. Only those who make such car finance comparisons realize how the rates can vary and how beneficial comparing interest rates exercise actually is. These are the people who are not able to save considerable amount of money but also get the best car finance deals in Sydney.

While in Sydney, car finance is quite popular amongst the first time car buyers, it is a surprise to most people seeking car finance in Sydney to know the amount of money they can save over the loan period when they opt for a car loan that comes with slightly lower interest rates. Therefore, we recommend conducting a thorough comparison of car finance options in Sydney before visiting any car dealer to identify the best car finance in Sydney tailored to suit your budget.

One will also come across many car dealers who offer their customers in-house car finance in Sydney. These car dealers are known to tempt their potential customers to purchase their new car quickly through easy car finance schemes in Sydney. However, we recommend caution when shopping for car finance in Sydney, particularly through the car dealers as in general, car finance offered by car dealers come with higher interest rates and as such, may not be the best car finance in Sydney.

This article will share with you how to make money online without investment. Everyone wants to earn ” internet money”. The best way is to do this is with no experience and with zero cost. Imagine this, you could have multiple sources of online income. This will increase your streams of income. Get rid of the myth that you need to own a web site, you must have online product to sell or you must acquire the technical skills or “internet savvy” for your to earn “internet money”.

You could still earn “internet money” if you are not a web designer or a marketing genius. You are still wondering how to make money online without investment? Explore the following ways.

1. Online Writing

You could certainly earn “internet money” if you love writing. There are article directories or websites which pay you money if you submit or contribute your writing to them. Explore these sites, for example, Helium, Hubpages, Squidoo, Snipsly and Info Barrel. Start writing and sharing and start making money online without investment.

2. Affiliate Marketing

This is the best online business model for a beginner online marketer. Basically, you promote some else’s product online and you get paid a commission by successfully done so. You could get the affiliate products for free at the affiliate networks. You could use article marketing or even blogging to promote the affiliate products.

3. Blogging

You don’t need to have a website and you don’t need to know about web designing for you to set-up and blog. You could even set up a blog for free within minutes and start posting. Place ads for free on your blog and you will get paid when the visitors click on the ads. You could even place your affiliate link on your blog and promote the affiliate product through your blog. Again, share you story, your passion or whatever interesting topics through your blog and earn money online without investment.

How to make money online without investment? Explore the above now and integrate online writing, affiliate marketing and blogging and start making “internet money”. Isn’t it wonderful for you to be able to earn money online without investing a single dime?

Iraq has third largest oil reserve in the world and the Iraqi dinar is considered as a good investment option owing to an increase in oil production. The popularity of this currency has increased considerably over time. Many people prefer to buy dinar online.

Oil trading being the main asset of Iraq, it attracts a lot of investment from foreign countries every year. Oil trade has helped a great deal in developing the economic conditions of the country and many private investors are purchasing Iraqi dinar as investment. It is estimated that once the government there reach stability, the investors will make huge profits.

If you are planning to make an investment in the Iraqi currency, there are a few steps to follow:

– Do a proper research before investing and gain a good knowledge about new and old Iraqi dinar.

– There are good chances to get scammed in such an investment. Gather information about the anti counterfeiting measures of the foreign currency.

– It is very important to find an authentic dealer or else you may lose your money. The best way to buy is contacting your local bank. If they sell foreign currency, then that is the safest option. Another place to buy currency is online. It is not only fast but easy too. A good dealer will provide you with all the details and the information related to buying and the risk involved. You can easily browse online and contact a number of dealers.

Finding a credible and trustworthy dealer is a very important thing. You must write down all the doubts you have in mind and ask questions before finalizing the dealer. You can enquire from the dealer about their ratings with the Better Business bureau to check their credibility. Look for a dealer who has been in business for over 4 years. Also check with them the certificates of authenticity to see if the dinars are real. You should also see a copy of US treasury registration. Dont trust everything that a dealer has to say to you without verifying the facts.

You should also keep in mind that the return on any foreign currency is not guaranteed. Your profit will depend on a number of market factors. A lot of people have got good returns by investing in this currency over the years.

Be sure to do proper homework and take some advice from the experts before making any investment.

A Wells Fargo financial professional recently helped to save a client from losing money in a scam targeting senior citizens. The 78-year old client thought that he won an overseas lottery. Instead, he became a victim of financial elder abuse via a typical lottery scam. The Wells Fargo professional prevented money from being sent offshore, however money from another bank was sent out. San Francisco financial elder abuse attorneys warn senior citizens that lottery scams are abundant. California elder abuse attorneys warn the public not to fall for lottery scams.

In this case, the senior citizen victim was contacted by unknown individuals claiming to be from the Costa Rican lottery. They told the senior citizen that he had won the lottery and that he could collect a $5 million payout. Then they told the senior citizen victim that there were some formalities and that they would need some personal information to verify his identity. Additionally, they told him that he needed to send money to pay off various taxes and fees associated with the money he had won. The senior citizen victim then went to one of his banks and transferred $88,000 to an offshore account. California financial elder abuse attorneys warn seniors not to transfer money overseas. San Francisco financial elder abuse attorneys say that sending money to offshore accounts is a very risky proposition.

Next, the senior citizen victim went to his Wells Fargo Bank and attempted to set up another transfer of $50,000 to an offshore account. This time the senior citizen got lucky. The Wells Fargo financial professional knew immediately that something was wrong and refused to go forward with the transfer. Since the senior citizen client was convinced that he was one transfer away from getting $5 million, there was an unpleasant exchange between the financial professional and the senior citizen. At that point, the financial advisor contacted the family of the senior and they helped convince him that it was a scam. The financial advisor helped prevent further financial elder abuse by refusing to transfer the money. San Francisco financial elder abuse attorneys say that financial professionals can play a role in the battle against financial elder abuse.

Evans Law Firm, Inc. handles elder abuse, financial elder abuse, physical elder abuse, annuity fraud, consumer fraud class actions, insurance and banking fraud cases. If you think that you have witnessed or are the victim of elder abuse, or financial fraud then contact Evans Law Firm, Inc. at 415-441-8669 for a free and confidential consultation, or email us at

Following these guidelines will help you proceed wisely with investing in UK land:

1) Is the investment land in a region with high demand for housing?

The property should be in area that is viable and not at risk of future decline. Review statistics and trends about violent crime, school performance, industry loss or retention, and poverty, as these factors are crucial to determining housing demand. Find out what the city’s position is on funding for, and commitment to improving any of the aforementioned housing demand indicators.

2) Has a full sustainability study been carried out on the land investment site?

The land investment site must be evaluated to see what impact land development would have on the environment and natural resources. Any disturbance or potential harm to archeological sites, protected species, or conservation areas should be noted. Inspect the land’s topography for any sloping or flooding potential. Assess the effect that your potential investment might have on the present character of the land and buildings. Consider if a new development would “fit in” with the existing developments’ character?

3) Does the land investment site have road access? Is there an existing transport infrastructure?

Inquire about any plans for modification of roads that may affect the property in question. If there are such plans, are they already funded and scheduled or are they still in the planning stages? Research factors that affect the importance of access, such as the number of people who commute to work as opposed to working locally.

4) Does the area where the investment land lies have sufficient amenities to support residents of a new development?

Evaluate the quality and enrollment capacity of local schools availability of recreational facilities. Consider not only the quantity and variety of shops, but ask about longevity versus or high turnover of those businesses. Look into the ease of accessing both inpatient and outpatient medical care. Ask about immediate or future plans for addition or removal of any of the above amenities.

5) Does the company with whom you are investing have a successful record of accomplishment with UK Land Investments?

Ask for referrals from current and previous clients and actually contact them. Search public records, industry journals, and periodicals to be apprised of the company’s reputation, stability, and expertise with investing in UK Land.

6) Does the company contractually retain a holding in the land investment site?

Investigating matters such as this may seem to be obvious and unnecessary but will save you time and money in the long- run

7) Does the company contractually commit funds to the planning application for the land investment site?

Be sure that commitment of funds to the planning application for your potential investment in UK land is specified in the contract.

In todays crumbling, commercial real estate market, both borrowers and lenders find themselves in quite a precarious predicament. Borrowers struggle to make their commercial mortgage payments, while lenders are crippled by the increasing number of defaults on commercial property. Right now the best solution to this problem is commercial mortgage modification.

Commercial mortgage modification is the process of renegotiating the terms of a commercial loan. This is done typically by reducing the interest rate or monthly payment on the loan. Other benefits to the borrower may include an extension of the loan term, a forbearance or moratorium on payments, and of course an alternative to foreclosure.

A commercial mortgage modification is about risk to the lender. A lender will only consider a modification if a borrower is in default or at risk of defaulting. The most important thing the lender will look at in determining whether or not to modify a commercial note is cash flow. One very important calculation used in determining cash flow is called the DCR or Debt Coverage Ratio. This ratio is used by the underwriters to determine if a modification can be approved. If a property is breaking even, meaning the income generated is equal to the operating expenses, the DCR would be equal to 1. If commercial property has a positive cash flow, meaning the income the property generates is more than sufficient to cover the mortgage payment and all of the operating expenses, the DCR is greater than 1. If the property is losing money, the DCR would be less than 1. A lender will most likely not modify the commercial note, if the property already has a DCR greater than 1. Commercial lenders writing new commercial loans will most likely require a DCR of 1.25 or greater.

The most common form of payment reduction seen in a commercial mortgage modification is when the lender converts a principal and interest payment to an interest only payment. A lender may consider this form of commercial loan modification to help the borrower improve their cash flow. By only paying the interest on the loan, as opposed to principal and interest, the payment becomes more affordable for the borrower.

However, in extreme circumstances, reducing the mortgage payment to interest only is just not enough for a commercial property owner. If a lender sees that the borrower will still have negative cash flow even after reducing the payment to interest only, they may consider a reduction in the interest rate. Although the interest rate reduction may be temporary, it will help the borrower free up capital and maintain the mortgage payment on time. Although uncommon, lenders have lowered interest rates to as low as 1% even, to avoid an even more costly foreclosure.

Business ideas are listed with the bookkeeping services. Like a financial advisor you can be assisting your web visitors using the daily projects of economical documentation. The services you provide are very a lot like an accountant los angels with the real change that you will never to blame for examining information or auditing economical statements. You main work is usually to collect and acquire on the information and perform the primary numbers engaged, the take a look at conclusions.

You need to be high information focused and get above regular good feeling. To get going you ought to already have labored in relevant areas and that means you recognize how the projects associate plus your customers do not possess frustrating excitement. Begin with promotion to the classifieds, magazines, and company online forums, you must system with experts around the area exclusively Qualified Public Agency and company experts and entrepreneurs, also be section of an organization It is possible to cost $30 to $50 hourly or you can perform transaction information with every customers just like hourly or monthly.

You are able to perform either at home or journey on the workplace of the customer, in any event you continue to should journey to their own workplace to buy the info you must collect and the lending company to create remains for the customer. With that said keep a count within your usage then it will not terminate your pay. You do not need staff unless your small business develops, in which case you might additionally need affiliates. This can be a probability of those that have problems. For internet hyperlinks strongly related tag research for that Nationwide Association of Qualified Bookkeepers, the nation Institution of Professional Bookkeepers and bookkeeping help. These bookkeeping services in Georgia also are worth spending the penny inside a useful way.

A bookkeeping server is a which, by description, keeps your guides. You provide them with the accounts as well as the expenses and they go into the facts into a book to provide you a practical bookkeeping to use your company are economically in those days. It is actually nearly the entrepreneur to produce the accountant all of the statements and accounts so they really may keep precise guides. The accountant helps keep your guides only but not produce IR tests, financial lawful organizations, or anything outside of the whole world of just doing the data tweaking your guides immediately.

If you are thinking about applying to enrol on the MSc Accounting and Finance masters degree at the Management School at the University of Southampton, then here is a quick overview of the course.

The Accounting and Finance MSc course is designed to meet the needs of students who have some knowledge of accounting and finance and who wish to extend their knowledge to an advanced level.

Students who have studied very little accounting or finance and have little relevant work experience are likely to find the programme very challenging indeed.

This MSc Accounting and Finance masters degree course consists of a core covering the main areas of accounting and corporate finance, and a research methods course that supports the dissertation.

Options available on this programme of study allow students to study particular aspects of accounting or taxation in more depth.

For example, there is a pathway within the programme that allows students to concentrate on research-oriented training and more advanced aspects of accounting and finance.

Your understanding of the subjects covered and your ability to use the knowledge and skills gained will be enhanced through a variety of methods and strategies on the MSc Accounting and Finance masters degree.

If you wish to apply to study this MSc in Accounting and Finance you should complete a University of Southampton application form and return it to the Academic Registrar.

Your application to study MSc Accounting and Finance will be carefully considered by a specialist member of the academic staff who will weigh up many factors; not only your academic achievements, interests and aptitudes, but also your motivation and your referee’s confidential report.

At the Management School we make our decisions in most cases on the application form and supporting documents alone. However, candidates who require special consideration, e.g. on grounds of age, disability or non-standard entry qualifications may be interviewed.